China is geographically the third largest country in the world and

China is geographically the third largest country in the world and the most populated low-to-middle-income country. occurred in the United States unhealthy lifestyles in China including heavy smoking and poor diet combined with pollution have contributed to increased malignancy risk. China is usually facing many challenges in cancer treatment and prevention for the general populace. The major areas that need to be resolved in the control of cancer in China include cancers associated with environmental pollution tobacco use occupational carcinogens contamination excessive alcohol consumption dietary deficiencies and obesity. In this perspective we review the problems in each area and suggest ideas for future directions in cancer research and strategies and actions to reduce the incidence of cancer in China. is usually a type of bacteria that is an important etiological factor in stomach cancer and more than 50% of the world’s populace may be infected. Infection with is known to contribute to gastric carcinogenesis [55]. In an initial study Ma exhibited that contamination is usually acquired during early childhood through transmission from parents to children[56]. Anti-drugs or eradication of has been shown to reduce gastric cancer [57-60]. A number of treatments have been tested for therapy in randomized controlled trials [61-65]. The regimen most commonly recommended for first line treatment of is usually triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and the antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin. HBV and HCV Hepatitis B and C are infectious diseases that are caused by HBV or HCV respectively. These SB-505124 HCl viruses primarily cause inflammation of the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer death in China [66]. HCC is usually strongly associated with HBV or HCV contamination [67]. However vaccination against HBV can lower HBV contamination [68 69 and presumably the risk of liver cancer. According to a cluster randomized controlled trial of neonatal HBV vaccination which was conducted between 1983 and 1990 in Qidong County (Jiangsu China) it is noted that neonatal HBV vaccination greatly reduced HBsAg SB-505124 HCl seroprevalence (an indicator of current HBV contamination) in childhood and young adulthood and subsequently reduced the risk of liver cancer and other liver diseases in young adults [70]. HPV HPV contamination is an important risk factor for cervical cancer a major malignancy in China [71]. HPV testing has SB-505124 HCl been shown to be highly effective for cervical cancer prevention in many countries [72]. However although vaccines against HPV are commonly used in many countries they do not appear to be available in China at this time but are undergoing clinical trials in China for future use. If mass vaccination were to be implemented based on an estimate of $100/person (cost in US dollars) it is predicted that if 100 million women receive the HPV vaccination in China the cost will be $10 billion (cost in US dollars). EBV In 1964 Michael Anthony Epstein Yvonne Barr and Bert Achong published a paper in [73] describing a newly discovered computer virus that was Nrp2 the first computer virus later to be shown to cause cancer in humans. The computer virus was named the Epstein-Barr computer virus (EBV) and most commonly causes Burkitt’s lymphoma and other B-cell lymphomas nasopharyngeal carcinoma and some gastric cancers. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most prevalent tumor in southern China and Southeast Asia. Epidemiological studies suggest SB-505124 HCl that NPC is usually associated with latent EBV contamination genetic susceptibility early-age exposure to environmental carcinogens [74] and maybe nitrosamines [75]. Tobacco smoke may activate EBV [76]. Unfortunately even though EBV is the first human tumor computer virus identified no specific treatment or vaccine is usually yet available to prevent or treat EBV contamination although efforts are underway SB-505124 HCl to develop an EBV preventive vaccine [77]. Actions Large-scale programs must be established to identify people with infectious pathogens (is so widespread China should also consider running large national trials focusing on the confirmed triple therapy to eradicate this infectious.