Objective The goal of this research was to examine if the prevalence of cigarette smoking was connected with family structure among multicultural children and whether there is gender disparity in the association. (16.5%) step-parent (15.6%) and no-parent (6.2%) households. The entire prevalence of ever/life time smoking cigarettes was Rabbit Polyclonal to IPKB. 24.0% and had not been significantly different between genders in each family members framework (P?>?0.05). Weighed against living in unchanged households surviving in single-parent step-parent or no-parent households was significantly connected with higher probability of ever/life time AZD-5069 smoking cigarettes among all learners (P?0.05) and surviving in single-parent and step-parent households was significantly connected with higher probability of ever/life time smoking amongst females (P?0.05) and among men (P?0.05) respectively after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions These findings suggest that family structure is a risk factor for smoking among multicultural students. Anti-smoking programs should consider this factor. Keywords: Family structure Adolescent Smoking Multicultural Hawaii Introduction Smoking remains the most preventable cause of disease and premature death in the United States. During 2005-2009 an estimated 480 0 Americans died each year as a result of cigarette smoking and smoking-related illness (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Office on Smoking and Health 2014 Adolescence is usually a critical time period in the life cycle for the onset of cigarette smoking. In 2010 2010 more than 88% of adult daily smokers started smoking before they were 18?years old and 99% of them started smoking before AZD-5069 the age of 26?years (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Office on Smoking and Health 2012 In the United States approximately 3900 youths between the ages of 12 and 17?years smoked their first cigarette and 1000 became daily smokers per day in 2008 (SAMHSA 2009 In 2004 a total of 11.7% of middle school students and 28.0% of high school students were current tobacco product users (e.g. cigarettes cigars AZD-5069 smokeless tobacco pipes bidis or kreteks) (CDC 2005 Studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with adolescent smoking (Moolchan et al. 2000 Schepis and Rao 2005 Turner et al. 2004 Tyas and Pederson 1998 In general parenting and family factors have played a rather minor role in these studies with greater emphasis placed on personal peer and social effects as well as on larger socially contextual factors such as cigarette advertising. Recently there has been increased interest in family-based interventions both to deter adolescent substance abuse in general and to prevent adolescent cigarette smoking specifically (Simons-Morton and Farhat 2010 The unfavorable and long-term effects of divorce on children particularly during adolescence have been a topic of frequent investigation. Findings from these studies continue to suggest that adolescents from divorced families experience poorer mental health as well as more smoking and other drug use than those from intact families (Fagan and Churchill 2012 It has been shown that adolescents AZD-5069 from non-intact families had higher prevalence of smoking and had earlier onset of cigarette use. Adolescents who lived in a step-family structure during their formative years were more likely to use tobacco and to consume alcohol by the age of 18?years (Brown and Rinelli 2010 Similarly single-parent households or households with a mother and a stepfather present have been shown to pose a risk for material use (Musick and Meier 2010 While many studies have reported the effects of family structures on adolescents’ health behaviors most of these studies were conducted among general population in western countries. Little is known about the effects among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders a rapidly growing segment of the US population (US Census Bureau 2012 Between 2000 and 2010 the Asian American population grew 43% from 10.2 million to 14.7 million persons comprising 4.8% of the total population (Hoeffel et al. 2012 These statistics are significant in relation to racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence of smoking. For instance Whites and Hispanics are more likely than.