Introduction Micronutrient insufficiency is observed in heart failure patients. deficiency led

Introduction Micronutrient insufficiency is observed in heart failure patients. deficiency led to decreases in: ventricular wall thickness left ventricle dry weight myocyte sectional area left ventricle posterior wall thickness and ventricular geometry. With regard to heart function the velocity of the A wave the ratio between the E and A wave the ejection fraction fractional shortening and cardiac output values were decreased in T (-) rats suggesting abnormal diastolic and systolic function. Increased fibrosis inflammation and increased activation of metalloproteinases were not observed. Oxidative stress was increased in deficient animals. Conclusions These data suggest that taurine deficiency promotes structural and functional cardiac alterations with unique characteristics. Introduction Patients with heart failure (HF) may possess different nutritional demands than people that have a standard physiological condition [1]. There is certainly evidence that individuals with HF are lacking in lots of micronutrients that play essential roles in keeping calcium homeostasis managing oxidative tension and regulating energy and proteins rate of metabolism [2]. Among these nutrition taurine is vital. It is involved with biological processes such as for TAK 165 example bile salt development reduced amount of the degrees of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a variety of organs insulin activity modulation anti-hypertension anti-atherogenic actions hepatoprotection and neurotransmission [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]. Taurine makes up about 50% of total free of charge proteins in the center [9]. Allard et al. reported that taurine deficiency plays a part in HF in cats and dogs [1]. There are several factors involved with cardiac redesigning and development of TAK 165 HF including oxidative tension and swelling [1] [10] [11] [12]. Taurine can be referred to as a nutritional with the next features in the center: osmoregulation indirect regulator of oxidative tension anti-inflammatory actions stabilizing membranes through immediate relationships with phospholipids maintenance of regular contractile function modulation of mobile calcium amounts TAK 165 modulator of proteins kinases and phosphatases inhibiting apoptosis [8] [13]. Therefore it is possible that taurine modulates morphological and functional cardiac variables. However the physiological role of this amino acid in the heart is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to assess the role of taurine deficiency in normal rat hearts. Materials and Methods Animals and treatment: Male Wistar rats 21 days old and weighting 100 g were used in the study; the animals were housed and cared for in accordance with the National Institute of Health’s Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The experimental protocol was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the Botucatu School of Medicine UNESP S?o Paulo Brazil. The animals were randomly allocated into two groups: TAK 165 the control group (C; n?=?17) and the taurine-deficient group (T Nog (-); n?=?17). The animals were housed in individual cages; their feeding was monitored daily and water was administered red (Sirius red F3BA in aqueous saturated picric acid). The measurements were obtained from digital images (40× magnification) that were collected with a video camera attached to a Leica microscope; the images were analyzed using Image-Pro Plus 3.0 software (Media Cybernetics; Silver Spring MD). The myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured with a digital pad and the TAK 165 selected cells were transversely cut so that the nucleus was in the center of the myocyte [18]. The interstitial collagen volume fraction was determined for the entire cardiac section that was stained with red by analyzing digital images that were captured under polarized light (20× magnification). Perivascular collagen was excluded from this analysis [18]. Determination of concentrations of taurine in the myocardium: Tissue concentrations of taurine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography using a Schimadzu ? LC10AD and a Shimadzu RF535 fluorescence detector. Phase A was a 25 mmol/L sodium phosphate solution pH 6.9 containing 20 mL/L methanol 20 ml/L acetonitrile and 20 ml/L tetrahydrofuran and phase B was a solution of 65%.