All experiments were performed in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations

All experiments were performed in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. Consent for publicationNot applicable. Competing interestsThe authors declare that they have no competing interests. Footnotes Publishers Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Contributor Information Yuri Ushijima, Email: Haruka Abe, Email: Georgelin Nguema Ondo, Email: moc.liamg@9treviulknilegroeg. Rodrigue Bikangui, Email: moc.liamg@61dorkib. Marguerite Massinga Loemb, Email: moc.liamg@ebmeolagnissamm. Vahid R. the periodic emergence of arbovirus diseases. However, information on the prevalence of arboviruses is largely unknown or infrequently updated because of the lack of surveillance studies, especially in Africa. Methods A surveillance study was conducted in Gabon, Central Africa, on arboviruses, which are a major public health concern in Africa, including: West Nile CCT251455 virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Serological and molecular assays were performed to investigate past infection history and the current status of infection, using serum samples collected from healthy individuals and febrile patients, respectively. Results The overall seroprevalence during 2014?2017 was estimated to be 25.3% for WNV, 20.4% for DENV, 40.3% for ZIKV, 60.7% for YFV, 61.2% for CHIKV, and 14.3% for RVFV. No significant differences were found in the seroprevalence of any of the viruses between the male and female populations. However, a focus on the mean age in each arbovirus-seropositive individual showed a significantly younger age in WNV- and DENV-seropositive individuals than in CHIKV-seropositive individuals, indicating that WNV and DENV caused a relatively recent epidemic in the region, whereas CHIKV had actively circulated before. Of note, this indication was supported by the detection of both WNV and DENV genomes in serum samples collected from febrile patients after 2016. Conclusions This study revealed the recent re-emergence of WNV and DENV in Gabon as well as the latest seroprevalence state of the major arboviruses, which indicated the different potential risks of virus infections and virus-specific circulation patterns. This information will be helpful for public health organizations and will enable a rapid response towards these arbovirus infections, thereby preventing future spread in the country. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12879-021-05960-9. (WNV, DENV, ZIKV, and YFV), cross-reactivity was examined in advance using each arbovirus seropositive control (see Additional file: Table S1). The cross-reactivity adjusted seropositivity was then determined according to the criteria described in the Methods section. Seroprevalence of WNV, DENV, ZIKV, YFV, CHIKV, and RVFV The prevalence of antibodies is summarized in Table?1. The overall prevalence of antibodies to each arbovirus in the 387 individuals with demographic information was as follows: WNV, 25.3% (98/387); DENV, 20.4% (79/387); ZIKV, 40.3% (156/387); YFV, 60.7% (235/387); CHIKV, 61.2% (237/387); and RVFV, 14.3% (55/387). A similar prevalence was observed in the 462 individuals tested, including the sample whose demographic information was unavailable. There was no significant difference in the prevalence between the male and female populations. Focusing on CCT251455 age, the prevalence of antibodies to YFV and RVFV increased gradually with age. Moreover, seropositivity against ZIKV and CHIKV showed a clear increase in individuals aged ?17?years compared with CCT251455 those aged 1C2?years ((% [95% CI])462a111 (24.0 [20.1C27.9])103 (22.3 [18.5C26.1])179 (38.7 [34.3C43.2])275 CCT251455 (59.5 [55.0C64.0])278 (60.2 [55.7C64.6])67 (14.5 [11.3C17.7])387b98 PRDM1 (25.3 [21.0C29.6])79 (20.4 [16.4C24.4156 (40.3 [35.4C45.2])235 (60.7 [55.9C65.6])237 (61.2 [56.4C66.1])55 (14.3 [10.7C17.7])Sex?Female15735 (22.3 [18.2C26.4])39 (24.8 [20.5C29.1])60 (38.2 [33.4C43.1])92 (58.6 [53.7C63.5])91 (58.0 [53.0C62.9])20 (12.7 [9.4C16.1])?Male23063 (27.4 [23.0C31.8])40 (17.4 [13.6C21.2])96 (41.7 [36.8C46.7])143 (62.2 [57.3C67.0])146 (63.5 [58.7C68.3])35 (15.2 [11.6C18.8])Age?1C2?years7923 (29.1 [24.6C33.6])21 (26.6 [22.2C31.0])23 (29.1 [24.6C33.6])42 (54.2 [48.2C58.1])32 (40.5 [35.6C45.4])10 (12.7 [9.3C16.0])?3C11?years14036 (25.7 [21.3C30.1])31 (22.1 [18.0C26.2])43 (30.7 [26.1C35.3])82 (58.6 [53.7C63.5])67 (47.9 [42.9C52.8])18 (12.9 [9.5C16.2])?12C17?years283 (10.7 [7.6C13.8])7 (25.0 [20.7C29.3])13 (46.4 [41.5C51.4])17 (60.7 [55.8C65.6])22 (78.6 [74.5C82.7])4 (14.3 [10.8C17.8])?? ?17?years14036 (25.7 [21.3C30.1])20 (14.3 [10.8C17.8])77 (55.0 [50.0C60.0])94 (67.1 [62.5C71.8])116 (82.9 [79.1C86.6])23 (16.4 [12.7C20.1])Collection year?20143813 (34.2 [29.5C38.9])4 (10.5 [7.5C13.6])20 (52.6 [47.7C57.6])28 (73.7 [69.3C78.1])33 (86.8 [83.5C90.2])4 (10.5 [7.5C13.6])?201513033 (25.4 [21.0C29.7])30 (23.1 [18.9C27.3])58 (44.6 [39.7C49.6])75 (57.7 [52.8C62.6])86 (66.2 [61.4C70.9])20 (15.4 [11.8C19.0])?201618545 (24.3 [20.0C28.6])35 (18.9 [15.0C22.8])60 (32.4 [27.8C37.1])110 (59.5 [54.6C64.4])98 (53.0 [48.0C57.9])28 (15.1 [11.6C18.7])?2017347 (20.6 [16.6C24.6])10 (29.4 [24.9C34.0])18 (52.9 [48.0C57.9])22 (64.7 (59.9C69.5))20 (58.8 [53.9C63.7])3 (8.8 [6.0C11.6]) Open in a separate window West Nile virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, yellow fever virus, chikungunya virus, Rift Valley fever virus, CI confidence interval a All tested samples regardless of demographic information b Samples with demographic information available Number of seropositive-arboviruses.