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Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters

WL, JLX, WJL, ZWH, YPH, LH, YWS, QW, YW and YYC obtained the data

WL, JLX, WJL, ZWH, YPH, LH, YWS, QW, YW and YYC obtained the data. MDR, MCL1, Survivin in YAP-overexpressing cells. Thus, we proposed a novel mechanism in which YAP augments COX-2 expression as well as its downstream targets, Survivin, MDR, MCL1, and thereby up-regulates the effect of drug resistance in CRC cells. Recently, with the identification of more regulatory components, the Hippo pathway seems to be far from a simple linear pathway. Its activity is clearly mediated through crosstalk with other signaling pathways. The WNT, transforming growth factor- (TGF)Cbone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Hedgehog (HH), Notch, insulin and mTOR pathways have all been reported to functionally interact with the Hippo pathway [29]. Although both COX-2 and YAP play important role in cell proliferation, survival and tumor maintenance, whether there is cross-talk between them remains poorly understood. In the present study, we found that YAP and COX-2 were both overexpressed in CRC cells. YAP up-regulated COX-2 protein expression at the level of transcription. Deletion of the TEAD binding site in the COX-2 promoter diminished COX-2 transcriptional induction by YAP indicating that an intact TEAD binding site was necessary for YAPs induction of COX-2. Also, YAP up-regulated COX-2 catalyzed product, PGE2, and downstream targets MDR, MCL1 and Survivin. These findings clearly indicate that Hippo-YAP signaling mediates the functions of COX-2/PGE2/EPs pathway and YAP is a nexus of the two pathways. Having shown that there was an interaction between Hippo-YAP and COX-2 pathway and COX-2-mediated chemoresistance was regulated by YAP signaling, was there a possibility that COX-2 regulated YAP expression vice versa? Our preliminary study showed that in COX-2-overexpressing HepG2 cells, COX-2 knockdown reduced the expression of YAP. In addition, by overexpressing COX-2 in COX-2-low immortal THLE-3 hepatic cells, enhanced levels of COX-2 were accompanied by up-regulation of YAP expression (data not shown). These results suggested that a feedback loop may exist between YAP and COX-2. Hydrogen sulfide-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (HS-NSAIDs) are a new class of compounds with potential in alleviating gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse effects [30]. Some of them are now in clinical trial II. Recently, some of HS-NSAIDs have been shown with potency in inhibiting the growth of human cancers. However, studies regarding the underlying mechanism have not been abundantly carried out. In this study, we found that G-4 could drive YAP from DNA31 nucleus to cytosol and promote its retention in cytosol through phosphorylation, hence affecting the downstream events such as YAP transcription. This mechanism has become one of the therapeutic DNA31 targets for agents that have been found to disturb the Hippo pathway (Fig.?13). DNA31 Additionally, as expected, G-4 showed direct COX-2 inhibition independent of its suppression on YAP. As a result, G-4 can be identified as a dual inhibitor of YAP and COX-2. Because YAP and COX-2 are involved in drug resistance, we further discovered that their downstream effectors such as CTGF, Cyr 61, MCL, MDR1, Survivin, Bcl-xL were down-regulated and G-4 demonstrated remarkable effect on biological behaviors of Taxol resistant cells (Fig.?14). Finally, we turned to whether YAP and COX-2 had synergistic performance in keeping resistance. Results showed that not only G-4 was more potent than VP or celecoxib (a single inhibitor of YAP or COX-2) in inducing apoptosis and reducing viability of Taxol resistant CRC cells, but also combination of shYAP and COX-2 exhibited advantages over either shYAP or shCOX-2 alone. These results point to the idea that targeting YAP and COX-2 would be more efficacious than single inhibition in overcoming drug resistance regarding YAP/COX-2 high expression and G-4 could be a novel drug candidate for successful drug resistant CRC treatment. Open in a separate window Fig. 13 Agents that affect the Hippo pathway?(Nat Rev Cancer. 2015;15(2):73-79.)?????? Open in Rabbit Polyclonal to Smad1 a separate window Fig. 14 YAP mediates drug-resistance through triggering COX-2 over-expression and regulatory effects of G-4 Conclusions In conclusion, this study demonstrates that YAP is an upstream regulator of COX-2 and targeting YAP-COX-2 may be a potential promising strategy to treat drug-resistant colorectal cancers. G-4 may provide a promising alternative therapeutic approach for cancer patients DNA31 who are not sensitive to YAP or COX-2 inhibitor. Dual inhibitors of YAP and COX-2 may be of particular value for chemotherapeutic drug resistance in tumors with high levels of YAP/COX-2 expression. Additional files.

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Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters

(B) Representative movement cytometry of Compact disc22 expression in IgD+ or IgD? B cells co-cultured with OP9-BAFF/Compact disc40L cells at day time 1, 3, or 7 post-electroporation with Compact disc22-focusing on (dark) or scrambled control RNPs (gray, stuffed), or non-electroporated regulates (dotted dark)

(B) Representative movement cytometry of Compact disc22 expression in IgD+ or IgD? B cells co-cultured with OP9-BAFF/Compact disc40L cells at day time 1, 3, or 7 post-electroporation with Compact disc22-focusing on (dark) or scrambled control RNPs (gray, stuffed), or non-electroporated regulates (dotted dark). Click here to see.(297K, pdf) 2Figure S2. with targeted nucleases allows varied experimental and restorative genome executive applications right now, but expansion to primary human being B cells continues to be limited. Right here a way can be reported by us for targeted hereditary executive in major human being B cells, making use of electroporation of CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to bring in gene knockout mutations at M2I-1 protein-coding loci with high efficiencies that in some instances exceeded 80%. Further, we demonstrate knock-in editing and enhancing of targeted nucleotides with effectiveness exceeding 10% through co-delivery of oligonucleotide web templates for homology aimed repair. We shipped Cas9 RNPs in two specific culture systems to accomplish editing in both undifferentiated B cells and triggered B cells going through differentiation, reflecting energy in varied experimental conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a robust and scalable study tool for practical genetic research of human being B cell biology that may possess additional applications in manufactured B M2I-1 cell therapeutics. tradition systems, the one that maintained B cells within an undifferentiated condition via co-culture with feeder cell lines, and another which permitted evaluation of differentiating B cells that were turned on with soluble elements. We ablated solitary or multiple genes simultaneously by providing properly targeted RNPs actually, and we confirmed efficient editing and enhancing at both genomic and protein manifestation amounts additionally. Finally, we proven knock-in editing of the targeted gene by presenting a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide (ssODN) template for homology aimed restoration (HDR) (17). Used together, our results establish a strategy for CRISPR-Cas9-centered editing of major human being B cells, that may enable therapeutic and experimental genomic editing from the humoral disease fighting capability. 2. Methods and Materials 2.1. Stromal cell lines A well balanced BAFF/Compact disc40L-expressing OP9 cell range (OP9-BAFF/Compact disc40L) was produced with a retroviral transduction strategy using a Compact disc40L-P2A-BAFF including plasmid in an identical fashion towards the Compact disc40L-expressing OP9 cell range referred to previously (18). The pGEM-T plasmid including human being Compact disc40L cDNA (“type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”NM_000074.2″,”term_id”:”58331233″,”term_text”:”NM_000074.2″NM_000074.2) as well as the pMD18-T plasmid containing human being BAFF cDNA (“type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”NM_006573.3″,”term_id”:”23510443″,”term_text”:”NM_006573.3″NM_006573.3) were purchased from Sino Biological Inc. The Compact disc40L coding area (excluding the prevent codon) was amplified via PCR, with the help of a 5 BglII limitation site and a incomplete P2A linker in the 3 site, using the next primers: ahead 5-cg gaa ttc AGA TCT ATG ATC GAA ACA TAC AAC CAA Work TC-3; opposite 5-C CTC CAC GTC TCC AGC CTG CTT CAG CAG GCT GAA GTT AGT AGC TCC GCT LAMP2 TCC GAG TTT GAG TAA GCC AAA GG-3. The BAFF coding area was amplified using the incomplete P2A linker series in the 5 site and a BamHI site in the 3 site using the next primers: ahead M2I-1 5-CTG CTG AAG CAG GCT GGA GAC GTG GAG GAG AAC CCT GGA CCT ATG GAT GAC TCC ACA GAA AGG-3; opposite 5-gcg tcg GGA TCC TCA CAG CAG TTT CAA TGC AC-3. Both items were joined up with and purified inside a PCR response using the flanking primers. The Compact disc40L-P2A-BAFF product as well as the pMIY2 retroviral manifestation create with an IRES EYFP reporter downstream from the cloning site had been digested using BglII and BamHI and ligated, and the right sequence was confirmed. Retrovirus was generated by transfection of 293T cells with Effectene (Qiagen) and an assortment of pMIY2-Compact disc40L-P2A-BAFF as well as the GAG/Pol and VSV product packaging plasmids. The moderate was changed at 24 hr and gathered at 48, 72, and 96 hr. The virus-containing moderate was filtered and utilized to transduce low-passage OP9 bone tissue marrow stromal cells (ATCC-CRL2749). OP9 cells which were positive for YFP and for that reason infected using the retrovirus had been stained with M2I-1 an anti-CD40L-PE antibody (Clone 24C31, Biolegend) had been sorted utilizing a FACS Aria II cell sorter (BD). OP9 or OP9-BAFF/Compact disc40L cells had been cultured in Alpha-MEM press (Invitrogen) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Wisent). 2.2. Human being B cell tradition and isolation 2.2.1. Peripheral bloodstream B cell isolation and tradition Healthy human being subjects between your age groups of 18 and 40 years without genealogy of autoimmune disease had been recruited with authorization by the study Ethics Board from the College or university Wellness Network and educated consent of most subjects for assortment of human being peripheral blood examples. Peripheral bloodstream mononuclear cells (PBMCs) had been isolated via Ficoll-Paque Plus (GE Health care) gradient centrifugation pursuing vendor.

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Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters

Costaining for EdU and H2AX demonstrated that H2AX expression primarily coincided with EdU in every cells (Fig

Costaining for EdU and H2AX demonstrated that H2AX expression primarily coincided with EdU in every cells (Fig. in iPSCs marks sites of dual strand breaks. Our research demonstrates a link between elevated basal degrees of H2AX as well as the speedy replication of iPSCs. < .05 is known as significant and represented by asterisk statistically. Results iPSCs Possess Higher Basal Degrees of H2AX Weighed against Their Creator Fibroblasts or MSCs Differentiated from their website To judge DNA harm in individual iPSCs, we examined four made iPSC lines separately, produced from the same parental fibroblast cell series (ATCC CRL2097). We utilized two set up cell lines (iPSC DF19 and iPSC WB0031) and two lately produced lines (iPSC EB1 and iPSC EA4 [Fig. S1A, Helping Details]) at lower passing. As cell therapy applications of iPSCs use just their differentiated progeny, we looked into the result of differentiation on DNA harm by differentiating two from the iPSC lines to create MSCs (Fig. S1B, Helping Details). We examined degrees of the phosphorylated variant histone H2AX being a marker for the current presence of DNA strand breaks, using antibodies particular for the S169 phosphorylated type. Flow cytometry evaluation revealed an KM 11060 increased percentage of cells positive for H2AX in every iPSC lines in comparison using the founding fibroblast cell series (Fig. 1A). Lower degrees of H2AX positive cells were seen in MSCs KM 11060 produced from the iPSC lines also. To exclude the chance that the higher degrees of H2AX in iPSCs had been due to passaging using ReLeSR, we examined other popular methods the following: Accutase, Versene, and manual passaging. Similar degrees of H2AX had been noticed with all examined strategies (Fig. S2A, Assisting Info), indicating that improved H2AX levels aren't an artifact of passaging KM 11060 technique. We also analyzed whether improved H2AX is particular to induced pluripotency by identifying H2AX amounts in human being ESCs. ESCs demonstrated an identical elevation of H2AX amounts as iPSCs, indicating that improved H2AX isn’t because of induced pluripotency but most likely inherent to all or any pluripotent stem cells (Fig. S2B, Assisting Information). Open up in another window Shape 1. Enhanced degrees of H2AX in iPSCs. (A): Quantitative data from movement cytometry analysis displaying percentage of cells positive for H2AX in two models of cell lines (best and bottom -panel). Error pubs stand for mean SD from at the least two tests. *< .05. (B): Consultant images of Traditional western blot evaluation for H2AX proteins completed at least in duplicate in two models of cell lines (best and bottom sections). Actin acts as a launching control. Vertical dark range in bottom -panel marks an KM 11060 unrelated street that was eliminated at that area in the gel picture. Abbreviations: FF, foreskin fibroblast; iPSCs, induced pluripotent stem cells; MSC, mesenchymal stromal cell. Traditional western blot evaluation with phosphorylation-specific antibodies verified the current presence of high degrees of H2AX proteins in iPSC lines weighed against the mother or father fibroblasts and MSCs (Fig. 1B). We also utilized confocal microscopy to investigate Rabbit polyclonal to Myocardin the distribution of H2AX foci amounts per cell in fibroblast, iPSC, and MSC populations (Fig. S3A, Assisting Info). In contract with our movement cytometry data, we noticed how the mean foci quantity per cell was higher in iPSCs than within their creator fibroblasts and MSC lines (Fig. S3B, Assisting Information). Therefore, by several strategies, our data indicate how the human being iPSC lines possess higher KM 11060 basal degrees of H2AX than their parental fibroblasts and differentiated MSCs. iPSCs Possess Elevated Degrees of DNA Strand Breaks Weighed against Creator Fibroblasts or Differentiated MSCs To help expand explore the raised degree of DNA breaks seen in iPSCs, we used an orthogonal solution to assess DNA harm. The comet assay uses solitary cell gel electrophoresis to assess types of DNA harm (see examine, Ref. [30]). When performed under alkaline circumstances, the comet assay detects multiple forms.

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Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters

Loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function reduces chloride secretion and raises sodium uptake, nonetheless it isn’t clear why CFTR mutation leads to progressive lung inflammation and infection also

Loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function reduces chloride secretion and raises sodium uptake, nonetheless it isn’t clear why CFTR mutation leads to progressive lung inflammation and infection also. in CFTR-silenced cells than in settings. CFTR-silenced cells exhibited decreased levels of triggered 1-integrin, phosphorylated tyrosine 576 of focal adhesion kinase (pFAK), and phosphorylation of Crk-associated substrate (pCAS). Addition of GM1 (however, not GM3) ganglioside to CFTR-silenced cells restored triggered 1-integrin, pFAK, and pCAS to near control amounts and partly restored (40%) cell migration. Our outcomes suggest that reduced GM1 in CFTR-silenced cells depresses 1-integrin signaling, which plays a part in the postponed wound repair seen in these cells. These results possess implications for the pathology of cystic fibrosis, where modified sphingolipid amounts in airway epithelial cells you could end up a diminished convenience of wound restoration after damage. and 4C for 10 min. Supernatants (cell lysates) had been collected and proteins concentrations had been measured utilizing a bicinchoninic acidity protein assay package (Thermo). Immunoblotting. Protein had been separated by SDS-PAGE (7.5% TGX Mini-PROTEAN precast gels, Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) under reducing conditions and used in polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes. The membranes had been probed with major antibodies accompanied by supplementary antibodies conjugated with HRP. Indicators had been visualized with improved chemiluminescence reagent (GE Health care, Little Chalfont, Subjected and UK) to X-ray film. Protein bands had been quantified using the ImageJ 1.42q image processing program (Country wide Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; rsb.information.nih.gov). To identify the phosphorylation degree of CAS, cell lysates had been precleared by incubation with 40 l of proteins A-Sepharose (Sigma) for 1 h and centrifugation at 325 for 2 min. The cleared supernatant was incubated with antiphosphotyrosine antibody TCS ERK 11e (VX-11e) over night and with 20 l of proteins A-Sepharose for 3 h. Examples had been centrifuged as above after that, washed three times in RIPA buffer, eluted with Laemmli buffer made up of 1.4 mM mercaptoethanol, and finally used for SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting with a CAS antibody. Cell surface biotinylation. The proportion of integrin in the plasma membrane was approximated by biotinylating the surface-exposed proteins using EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin reagent (Thermo) for 30 min at 4C based on the manufacturer’s guidelines. Examples were lysed with RIPA buffer seeing that over then simply. Biotinylated proteins had been isolated by incubation with streptavidin agarose beads (Thermo). SDS-PAGE test buffer was put into the beads, and SDS-PAGE and transfer to PVDF membranes had been performed. Finally, 1-integrin was discovered by immunoblotting as above. Lipid evaluation. Lipid removal and analysis had been performed as defined previously (40). Sphingolipids had been separated by slim level chromatography (TLC) using CHCl3/CH3OH/15 mM CaCl2 [11:9:2 (vol/vol/vol)] as the developing solvent and discovered in comparison to known criteria. Staining of GM1 on TLC plates was performed utilizing a process for immunostaining of lipids (6) except that HRP-labeled CtxB was utilized rather than antibodies. Lipid examples had been operate on TLC plates as above. Plates were dried and soaked in 0 TCS ERK 11e (VX-11e) in that case.02% polyisobutyl methacrylate for 1 min and surroundings dried. Plates had been after that incubated in preventing buffer (1% bovine serum albumin/1% polyvinyl pyrolidine/0.02% sodium azide) at area temperature for 30 min. Plates had been rinsed with cleaning buffer (PBS/1% Tween 20) and incubated with HRP-CtxB at 4C right away. After getting rinsed with cleaning buffer, signals had been visualized with improved chemiluminescence reagent. Gangliosides on TLC plates had been also visualized by staining with resorcinol (28). Assays for Mouse monoclonal to INHA glucosylceramide and sphingomyelin synthases in cell lysates had been performed using C6-NBD-ceramide as defined previously (33). BODIPY-GM1 degradation was examined as previously defined for BODIPY-lactosylceramide (9). Ceramide and its own metabolites had been analyzed utilizing a modification of the previously defined liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer technique (7) by separating lipids on the Waters Acquity C8 UPLC BEH column 2.1 150 mm, 1.7 m ahead of introduction of substances right into a Thermo TSQ Quantum Ultra triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Total unesterified cholesterol amounts had been assessed using an Amplex crimson cholesterol assay package (Life Technology) based on the manufacturer’s guidelines. Fluorescence microscopy. Cells cultured on cup coverslips had been set in 4% formaldehyde and cleaned in PBS. For filipin staining, cells had been incubated for 30 min at area temperatures with 100 g/ml filipin in PBS. For CtxB staining, set cells had been permeabilized with 0.05% saponin in PBS and incubated for 30 min at room temperature with 2 l/ml AlexaFluor 488-CtxB in PBS. To TCS ERK 11e (VX-11e) identify turned on 1-integrin, living cells on coverslips had been rinsed with PBS, incubated with 1:100 HUTS-4 antibody for 30 min at 10C, rinsed and fixed then. Cells had been then rinsed 3 x with PBS and incubated with 1:200 Alexa Fluor 594 anti-mouse antibodies for 2 h. In all full cases, after staining, cells had been cleaned in PBS, installed in SlowFade Silver (Life Technology), and noticed.

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Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters

AIM To compare the effectiveness of postoperative adjunctive usage of subconjunctival bevacizumab in altering the results of primary trabeculectomy with regards to suffered lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) and reduced amount of postoperative bleb vascularization and fibrosis

AIM To compare the effectiveness of postoperative adjunctive usage of subconjunctival bevacizumab in altering the results of primary trabeculectomy with regards to suffered lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) and reduced amount of postoperative bleb vascularization and fibrosis. well simply because the necessity for glaucoma medicines and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) needling. Outcomes At 1-season follow up, there is no factor between groupings for IOP (worth <0.05 statistically significant) using a 95% confidence interval. Evaluation between treatment groupings was performed using the Student's check for continuous factors. Categorical variables had been compared utilizing a continuity altered Chi-square test. Treatment evaluations using qualified failing and achievement explanations were assessed using the MW-150 hydrochloride stratified Kaplan-Meier success log-rank check. SPSS edition MW-150 hydrochloride 21.0 (Chicago, USA) was used. Between June 2010 and Sept 2013 Outcomes, 59 sufferers had been recruited. Randomization designated 30 sufferers towards the bevacizumab group and 29 sufferers towards the placebo group. Five sufferers withdrew their consent after medical procedures, four sufferers had been found to experienced a violation from the inclusion requirements and three sufferers had been lost to check out up. Forty-seven sufferers finished at least Rabbit Polyclonal to Collagen V alpha2 twelve months of follow-up, 23 sufferers in group A (Avastin) and 24 sufferers in group B (BSS). The demographic characteristics from the scholarly study patients are summarized in Table 1. Desk 1 Demographics features of the analysis sufferers (%) The groupings had been similar and equivalent. No statistically significant distinctions had been found at baseline other than a higher number of patients diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) present in the bevacizumab group. Baseline clinical characteristics are shown in Table 2. No statistically significant differences were found between groups regarding age, visual acuity, IOP, CCT, number of glaucoma medications, 24-2 visual field parameters, OCT RNFL thickness, number of previous laser trabeculoplasty treatments, and the number of patients with previous cataract surgery. Table 2 Baseline group comparison (%) The preoperative BCVA was 0.20.3 in group A and 0.40.7 in group B, being at 1-year follow-up 0.661.8 logMAR for group A and 0.470.66 logMAR for group B ((baseline to 1-year)placebo (BSS) in 37 patients with glaucoma that had a primary trabeculectomy without MMC, finding no differences between groups in terms of IOP after 3mo follow-up. During the same year, Ghanem[38] published a similar study including 55 patients comparing the single use of subconjunctival bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) versus placebo (BSS) MW-150 hydrochloride in patients that had a primary trabeculectomy with MMC. Similar to the findings of Sedghipour 5-FU in patients with severely vascularized blebs in the early postoperative period after trabeculectomy. Of importance, the optimal route of administration and dosing frequency are undetermined for bevacizumab[45]C[49] still. Surprisingly, outcomes from animal research suggest that there isn’t a major benefit for intravitreal make use of over subconjunctival. Intravitreal administration gets to higher concentrations in the optical eyesight, although there is certainly some proof that subconjunctival shot may bring about high tissue amounts for periods so long as those connected with intravitreal shot[45]. The use of bevacizumab in trabeculectomy can be an off-label treatment, and many issues have to be dealt with, like the greatest administration path (intravitreal, anterior subconjunctival or chamber, duration of actions, toxicity and dosage. In this scholarly study, the problem price was equivalent in both groupings for bleb drip, hypotony and choroidal detachments, and no systemic side effects were reported. The goal of modulating wound healing to provide safe and effective MW-150 hydrochloride IOP control in our surgical patients’ remains highly desirable, and anti-VEGF antibody treatment, such as with bevacizumab continues to be a possible addition to our armamentarium in this regard. Further work exploring the options available for treatment is usually indicated. Acknowledgments This study was presented as a poster at the World Glaucoma Congress 2019. This study was presented as an abstract at ARVO annual meeting in April, 2014. Foundation: Supported by the Glaucoma Research Society of Canada. Conflicts of Interest: Muhsen S, None; Compan J, None; Lai T, None; Kranemann C, None; Birt C, None. Recommendations 1. Quigley HA, Broman AT. The real amount of people with glaucoma worldwide this year 2010 and 2020. Br J MW-150 hydrochloride Ophthalmol. 2006;90(3):262C267. [PMC free of charge content] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 2. Tham YC, Li X, Wong TY, Quigley HA, Aung T, Cheng CY. Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a organized review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(11):2081C2090. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 3. O’Brien C, Schwartz B, Takamoto T, Wu DC. Intraocular pressure as well as the price of visible field reduction in chronic open-angle glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;111(4):491C500. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 4. Khaw PT, Occleston NL, Schultz G, Grierson I, Sherwood MB, Larkin G. Suppression and Activation.