A total of 16 clinical trials reported serological outcome data, but only one reported the vaccine effect

A total of 16 clinical trials reported serological outcome data, but only one reported the vaccine effect. at pre-vaccination. Reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine was associated with significantly higher incidences of nausea [RR?=?1.26, 95%CI:1.01, 1.57] and vomiting [RR?=?2.08, 95%CI:1.21, 3.58] in acellular pertussis vaccines combined with tetanus and diphtheria (Tdap) group than diphtheria tetanus-toxoid KU14R vaccines (Td) group. Higher dose of diphtheria toxoid and adjuvant in dTap might KU14R cause higher incidence of fever. Conclusions: Except for significant difference in gastrointestinal reaction (nausea, vomiting), acellular pertussis component vaccines are quite safe and has short-term effectiveness for the adolescents and adults. The adverse event of acellular pertussis component vaccine is similar to or safer than that of placebo or other vaccines without pertussis component. and is a poorly controlled vaccine-preventable disease. Since 1980, the incidence of pertussis has been increasing periodically in the United States with a peak in every 3 or 4 4 years. There were 6568 cases reported in 1993 and 25,827 cases reported in 2004.[1,2] In Australia, 6000 pertussis cases were reported in 2000 and 9000 cases were reported in 2005.[3] Despite universal immunization of children with pertussis component vaccines, the incidence of pertussis has recently increased dramatically in many countries that previously achieved good control of pertussis.[1C7] The waning immunity of vaccinated individuals might contribute to Rabbit Polyclonal to p14 ARF the resurgence of pertussis.[4C7] Besides high incidence of pertussis in infants, the burden of pertussis has recently increased considerably among adolescents and adults whose vaccine-induced immunity has waned.[8] This epidemiological feature is more obvious in the areas with higher coverage of pertussis immunization for infants. For example, pertussis cases in adolescents and adults in European and American countries accounted for more than 50% worldwide.[9C11] In Canada and Australia, adolescents and adults also became the most susceptible age groups.[12] Pediatric immunization has not decreased the incidence of pertussis in older individuals or the occurrence of outbreaks, nor has it eliminated KU14R the transmission of infections to non-immunized children. One study carried out in Canada, France, Germany and the USA showed that 76% to 83% infants with pertussis had been infected by their family members.[13] Adolescents and adults are hosts of and can be sources of pertussis for young infants, who have the highest risk of pertussis-related complications, hospitalization, and death rate.[14C16] The resurgence of pertussis has attracted attentions of many countries, and acellular pertussis vaccines combined with tetanus and diphtheria (Tdap) vaccine that can induce higher levels of immunogenicity in adults and adolescents were recommended to adults and adolescents by the American Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) in 2006.[17] Many developed counties such as USA, Australia, Canada, France, and Germany etc. have revised their pertussis immunization schedule on adolescents and adults KU14R in KU14R recent years and recommended boost immunization with at least 1 dose of pertussis component vaccine. For example, 2 additional boosts have been recommended for adolescents aging between 14 and 16 years of age and once again for adults in Canada.[3,18] In the United States, adolescents of 11 to 18 years of age are recommended 1 dose of Tdap, and another dose of Tdap for people of 19 to 64 years of age.[19] However, in China, there are only pertussis immunization schedules for infants, without immunization strategy for adolescents and adults. Many countries have carried out clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness and the safety after immunizing with pertussis containing vaccines in adolescents and adults,[20C24] but there is no systematic evaluation on adverse and protective effects. Recently, there are some assumptions showing that both the absolute and relative effectiveness of the pertussis containing vaccines might not be valid, and experts are.