All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding This study was financially supported by Helsinki University Hospital Research Funding: EVO grant T1020Y001 and Y1149SUL22 and a grant from your Finnish Association of Women Dentists. not seem to be affected by diabetes. However, the advanced pro-inflammatory state induced by and associated with periodontal swelling was reflected in the salivary biomarker levels, especially MMP-8 and the MMP-8/TIMP-1 molar percentage. Thus, these salivary biomarkers may be useful for monitoring the oral inflammatory state and the course of LT recipients. 0.05 were considered significant. Confidence intervals (CIs) were arranged at 95%. 3. Results 3.1. Fundamental Characteristics of LT Recipients with and without Diabetes The basic characteristics of the 84 LT recipients are given in Table 1. Prior to the LT, 14 recipients (17% of the total) experienced a diabetes analysis (diagnosed 1 to 21 years pre-LT, imply 9 years, SD 8). Recipients with diabetes required significantly more daily medications and experienced a lower unstimulated salivary circulation rate than those without diabetes. A significantly higher quantity of LT recipients who did not develop diabetes used corticosteroids compared to those with diabetes. Seven recipients (8% of the total) developed diabetes after transplantation. Of the 21 recipients with diabetes post-LT, four experienced diabetes mellitus type I and 17 experienced diabetes mellitus type II. Interestingly, there was no statistically significant difference between the organizations concerning their self-assessed T0901317 oral health. Table 1 Background, medications, and oral symptoms of liver transplant recipients with and without diabetes, after liver transplantation. of individuals6321 Age at oral examination post-LT [years] 153.4 (24.6C70.9)59.4 (42.9C69.4)0.054Women/men [%]44/5624/760.124CLD/ALF [%]71/2991/100.136Diabetes type [%] DM type I 19 DM type II 81 Smoking [%]1950.169Alcohol use [%]32380.790Educational level [%] University18100.497Technical school27380.406Other55521.000Working status [%] Operating full-time40381.000Unemployed700.352Retired53620.613Cardiovascular disease [%]49710.076Number of medications 26.3 (2.3)8.1 (1.7)0.002Medications [%] Cardiovascular87950.439Pulmonary651.000CNS21100.336Analgesic16100.721Immunosuppression [%] Cyclosporine46380.211Tacrolimus38620.077mTOR inhibitor600.568Corticosteroid32100.048Azathioprine13190.721Mycophenolate mofetil35331.000Xerostomia [%]48430.803Dysphagia [%]21140.750Burning mouth syndrome [%]18100.502Dysgeusia [%]351.000Unstimulated salivary flow rate [mL/min] 20.5 (0.4)0.2 (0.2)0.031Stimulated salivary flow rate [mL/min] 21.7 (1.0)1.8 (1.1)0.948Self-assessment of oral health, good [%]38480.450 Open in a separate window Abbreviations: ALF = acute liver failure; CLD = chronic liver disease; CNS = central nervous system; DM = diabetes mellitus; LT = liver transplantation; mTOR = mechanistic target of rapamycin. (%) and = 0.001) and stimulated salivary circulation rate (= 0.017) were the only significant predictors of a high PIBI score. Both the MMP-8/TIMP-1 molar percentage ( 0.001) and stimulated salivary circulation rate (= 0.002) remained significant in the multiple regression analysis. T0901317 Results of the regression analyses are given in Supplementary Table S2. The presence of periodontal pathogens and Candida and/or additional yeasts in LT recipients with a low PIBI score vs. high PIBI score was also analyzed. We found no significant variations between the organizations in the detection rates for any of the microorganisms analyzed (data not demonstrated). T0901317 3.4. Periodontal Health in Individuals with and without Diabetes In analyzing the association between diabetes and PIBI scores, T0901317 we found that the PIBI score of LT recipients with diabetes was significantly higher than the PIBI score of LT NKSF2 recipients without diabetes. In addition, a significantly higher percentage of LT recipients with diabetes experienced a high PIBI score. Nevertheless, when analyzing the distribution of the stage of periodontitis between these two groups, we found no significant difference. However, it should be mentioned that none of the recipients with diabetes experienced a healthy periodontium, while 17% of the recipients without diabetes experienced a healthy periodontium. The results are demonstrated in Table 4. Table 4 Distribution of stage of periodontitis and periodontal inflammatory burden index in liver transplant recipients with no diabetes and with diabetes, after liver.