GM6001 at concentrations of 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM was also intrathoracically injected into females using the CP21R7 Nanoject II injection program (Drummond Scientific). bloodmeals made up of 107 pfu/ml CHIKV supplemented with either GM6001 or DMSO (control) at 2 and 4 dpi as detected by plaque assays in Vero cells. Images shown in panels A, B, C, and graph of panel D are representative examples of repeated experiments.(TIF) pntd.0005976.s002.tif (1.2M) GUID:?48581EE3-DB9D-43C2-9C8A-D1B430DB6CE0 S2 Fig: Mapping of binding sites of polyclonal antibodies pAb-mmp1-1 and pAb-mmp1-2 to functional domains of AeMMP1. The image was adapted from NCBI Protein Blast: conserved domains graphical summary for AAEL005666-PA.(TIF) pntd.0005976.s003.tif (259K) GUID:?784A29BB-2CF9-4199-8ADB-F5EED25E05C6 S3 Fig: Transient silencing of did not affect AeMMP1 protein abundance, midgut collagen IV abundance, and CHIKV dissemination from your midgut. (A) qRT-PCR detection of expression in whole-body mosquitoes at 2 days following dsRNA injection. Statistical analysis was performed using Students 0.05). Detection of (B) AeMMP1 and (C) collagen IV by Western blot in midguts of dsRNA (unfavorable control) and dsRNA injected mosquitoes at 24 h pbm (= 3 days post-dsRNA injection). aMMP1 = catalytically active form of AeMMP1. Control: midguts of non-injected mosquitoes, which experienced received a bloodmeal; sugar: midguts of non-injected mosquitoes fed on sugar. (D) CHIKV titers in individual carcasses of dsRNA injected mosquitoes at 2 dpi (dsRNA injections were performed 2 days before oral computer virus challenge). Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (* at 0.05).(TIF) pntd.0005976.s004.tif (1.1M) GUID:?4C985132-68A1-4D55-AE48-5643D9573120 S4 Fig: Mosquito TIMPs and HuTIMP3 share conserved amino acid motifs and inhibit/reduce MMP activities (AeTIMP), (AaTIMP), and human TIMP3 (HuTIMP3). In reddish: conserved cysteine residues potentially involved in disulfide bonding; in strong and black: CP21R7 amino acid residues that differ between AeTIMP and AaTIMP. The dark blue collection shows the demarcation of the N-terminal and C-terminal subdomains. (B) Kinetics of HuMMP2 and (C) HuMMP3 activities and their inhibition by HuTIMP3 using FS-6 as substrate. Twenty ng of HuMMP3 were preincubated with 20 ng of HuTIMP3 or buffer at RT for 2 h, followed by addition of FS-6. Fluorescence intensity was measured every 20 min. (D) Kinetics of rAeTIMP-mediated inhibition of rAeMMP1. Four ng or 20 ng of rAeTIMP, were incubated with 20 ng of rAeMMP at RT for 2 h, followed by addition of FS-6 substrate and incubation for an additional 2C4 h. rAeTIMP was also incubated in absence of rAeMMP1 to demonstrate that rAeTIMP alone was unable to cleave the substrate. Fluorescence intensity was measured every 20 min.(TIF) pntd.0005976.s005.tif (575K) GUID:?47F1A154-DE4F-427D-8BB0-F34DCC6CCDBE S5 Fig: Transient silencing of AeTIMP did not affect CHIKV dissemination efficiency. (A) qRT-PCR detection of expression in whole-body mosquitoes, which had been injected with dsRNA, dsRNA, or PBS. At 2 days post-dsRNA injection, total RNA was extracted from sugarfed mosquitoes and utilized for qRT-PCR assays. Another group of mosquitoes received a bloodmeal at 2 days post-dsRNA injection and total RNA was extracted at CP21R7 2 days pbm. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test ( 0.05). (B) CHIKV titers in carcasses of mosquitoes at 2 dpi, which had been injected with dsRNA, dsRNA, or PBS 2 days before virus contamination. Each data point represents the CHIKV titer of an individual carcass. TE into the genome of P4 mosquitoes. A single integration event in supercontig 1.342 at nt position 1,211,152 (chromosome 2q) was revealed. Bold and highlighted in reddish: TA acknowledgement motif for in the genome of HWE where TE integration took place. Highlighted in green: right arm of the TE; highlighted in blue: left arm of the TE. Bold and black: TA Rabbit polyclonal to ZNF471.ZNF471 may be involved in transcriptional regulation target site duplication. (B).