Ras is among the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human being

Ras is among the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human being cancers. activation of ERK. The Raf-MEK-ERK cascade is a signaling paradigm for many MAP kinase cascades which regulate a wide array of cellular actions in diverse types which range from yeasts to human beings [5 6 The Raf-MEK-ERK kinase cascade has an essential function in cell proliferation. Inhibition of the pathway can stop oncogenic change by Ras [5 6 The significance of the pathway in individual carcinogenesis is additional backed by the latest observation that Doxorubicin IC50 B-Raf is really a Doxorubicin IC50 individual oncogene [7]. Activating mutations of B-Raf have already been found in around 66% of individual melanomas [7]. Provided the central function from the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway in cell proliferation comprehensive efforts have already been specialized in developing inhibitors of the pathway within the wish of developing improved molecular-targeted anticancer remedies [1 8 9 We previously reported the id and evaluation of the potent and selective MEK inhibitor PD184352 (CI-1040) [10]. This substance is orally energetic and has been proven to suppress ERK phosphorylation in vivo thus leading to broad-spectrum activity against a different panel of individual and murine tumor xenografts. Oddly enough CI-1040 didn’t display any overt signals of scientific toxicity [10]. CI-1040 was advanced into scientific testing in cancers sufferers and represents the very first MEK inhibitor to enter scientific development [11-13]. Within this report we’ve isolated a CI-1040-resistant clone (C26/CI-1040r) in the mouse colon carcinoma cell collection C26 which is known to contain a K-rasV12 mutation. Resistance was acquired by culturing cells in the presence of gradually increasing concentrations of CI-1040 over a 6-month time period. The growth rate of C26/CI-1040r in the presence of 2 μM CI-1040 is similar to parental C26 cells cultivated in its absence. C26/CI-1040r cells are resistant to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to CI-1040 treatment. RNA manifestation profiling indicates the resistant cells have a high level of K-rasV12 manifestation. Furthermore a CI-1040-resistant collection was also derived from C26 tumors treated in vivo having a CI-1040 analog (PD0325901) and these resistant cells similarly display an elevation in K-rasV12 manifestation. Consequently studies were carried out to overexpress K-rasV12 in C26 parental cells whereupon resistance to CI-1040 was conferred. Our data suggest that elevated manifestation of K-ras is at least partially responsible for the resistance of murine C26 colon carcinoma cells to the MEK inhibitor CI-1040 reported here. Materials and Methods Cell Tradition The C26 mouse colon carcinoma cell collection was cultured in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% FBS and 20 μg/ml gentamicin. C26/CI-1040r cells were grown in the same growth medium as parental C26 cells but were continuously managed in the presence of 2 μM CI-1040. All cells were incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2. Creating the Resistant C26 Cell Collection Exponentially growing C26 cells were initially exposed to 0.1 μM CI-1040. The concentration of CI-1040 was gradually increased to a final concentration of 2 μM over a 6-month time period. Cells were then serially diluted inside a 96-well plate until a single colony isolate could be obtained. Selective pressure for CI-1040 resistance was maintained by continuous exposure of this isolate (referred to as C26/CI-1040r) to 2 μM CI-1040. Soft Agar Assays Cells were plated in 2x DMEM-F12 growth medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum at a density of 2 x 104 cells/well in six-well plastic dishes. A two-layer agar system was used in which the final concentrations of Bacto-Agar (Difco Laboratories Detroit MI) were 0.6% and 0.3% in the bottom and top layers respectively. After incubation of the samples for 7 days 1 ml of 1 1 mg/ml p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet (Sigma St. Doxorubicin IC50 Louis MO) was added to each well for an additional 24 hours to visualize the Rabbit Polyclonal to LAMA1. colonies. Colonies containing more than 50 cells were quantitated by phase contrast microcopy (Nion Meville NY) using the public domain NIH program developed at the US National Institutes of Health (available at http://rsb.info.nih.gov/nih-image/). [14C]Thymidine Incorporation Five hundred cells were plated per well in a 96-well CytoStar plate (cat no. RPNQ 0162; Amersham Piscataway NJ) in 100 μl of DMEM/F12 with 10% FBS and 20 μg/ml gentamicin. On the next day cells were fed with 100 μl of fresh medium with the indicated concentration of CI-1040 and 0.1 μCi of [14C]thymidine and.