Background Recent research suggests that pregnancy is a potentially safe option for couples SU11274 with at least one HIV-infected adult. intentions with their HIV+ female patients of reproductive age. When asked to indicate their awareness of techniques to decrease HIV transmission risk among serodiscordant couples attempting pregnancy most participants reported awareness of HYAL2 multiple options. Conversation of contraception or fertility intentions was not associated with supplier gender age and experience in caring for HIV-infected patients previous training in women’s health SU11274 or provider’s awareness of options to decrease transmission risk. Conclusions HIV providers in this study were educated of practices that can lead to safer conception and prevent HIV transmission among individuals in serodiscordant associations but did not always discuss this information with their patients. Further research is needed to explore optimal methods for encouraging such conversations. Keywords: HIV Supplier Fertility Serodiscordant couples Women Introduction As HIV has increasingly become a chronic medical illness and improvements in medical care have substantially diminished the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT)  more women with HIV desire the cultural and interpersonal milestone of motherhood [2-8]. As likelihood of MTCT can now be reduced to less than 2% with antiretroviral (ARV) use during pregnancy the vast majority of infants given birth to to HIV-infected mothers in SU11274 the US are not infected with the HIV computer virus [9 10 Among a sample of women in HIV care 65 reported wanting to bear a biological child yet only 25% reported discussing this with their HIV care supplier . For years HIV care providers have had very little to offer as evidence-based HIV transmission prevention options other than condom use for serodiscordant couples. Since attempting pregnancy requires a couple to discontinue condom use a desire for pregnancy is in direct discord with secondary HIV prevention counseling messages. However recent research indicates that antiretroviral (ARV) use by either an HIV-infected or HIV-negative partner can reduce HIV transmission in serodiscordant heterosexual couples by 96% and 62-73% respectively [12-14]. With improved options for safe conception and decreased likelihood of MTCT there is now greater potential for providers and patients to engage in patient-centered conversations on how women living with HIV (WLWH) can both accomplish pregnancy safely and avoid perinatal transmission of HIV if desired [15 16 Businesses such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) endorse conversation of fertility intentions and contraception with HIV-infected women . However it is usually unclear whether and how issues related to fertility desires and options for safe conception are discussed in the healthcare setting [18-20]. In this study we sought to explore HIV care providers’ knowledge and behaviors regarding family planning options for HIV-infected women and serodiscordant couples. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of providers attending a national HIV conference in the Western United States in 2012. This conference was a continuing medical education clinical conference designed for front-line health care professionals providing HIV care for various population groups. The focus was on clinical care and not a presentation of original research. Registered attendees included health care professionals interpersonal workers experts and associates from the SU11274 health care industry. The survey was distributed in the room where attendees offered for the initial conference session. Inclusion criteria for the analysis included self-report as a health care provider (physicians nurse practitioners physician assistants) who reported providing care for WLWH. Providers who reported not having female patients were excluded. Because of its observational and anonymous character this study was exempted from approval by the University or college of North Carolina Institutional Review Table. The survey assessed participants’ professional background and characteristics of their clinical practice and individual panel using questions adapted from your Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Medical Monitoring Project . Participants were asked to indicate how often they themselves or the trainees/care providers under.