Nearly all lung cancers are caused by long term exposure to the several classes of carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. tobacco carcinogens. Limited research has been conducted evaluating familial aggregation and genetic linkage of lung malignancy particularly among by no means smokers in whom such associations might be expected to be strongest. Data emerging over the past several years demonstrates that lung cancers in by no means smokers are much more likely to carry activating mutations of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) a key oncogenic factor and direct therapeutic target of several newer anti-cancer drugs. EGFR mutant MAPK3 lung cancers may represent a distinct class of lung cancers enriched in the by no means smoking populace and less clearly linked to direct tobacco carcinogenesis. These insights followed initial screening and demonstration of efficacy of EGFR-targeted drugs. Focused analysis of molecular carcinogenesis in lung cancers in by no means smokers is needed and may provide additional biologic insight with therapeutic implications for lung cancers in both ever smokers and never smokers. NATURAL HISTORY AND PROGNOSIS The preceding papers in this issue of present an overview and a description of clinical epidemiology and risk factors associated with lung malignancy in by no means smokers (1 2 This short article is intended to summarize the current status of molecular profiling CEP-28122 of lung malignancy in by no means smokers to indicate how profiles differ between lung malignancy in ever smokers and never smokers and to review the therapeutic implications of these molecular characteristics. To place the therapeutic implications in context CEP-28122 this section will first summarize recent studies of differential clinical outcomes in lung malignancy patients by ever smoker vs. by no means smoker status irrespective of therapies targeting particular molecular determinants. Four recent retrospective analyses have compared the characteristics and treatment outcomes of by no means smokers and smokers with lung malignancy across stages of disease and regardless of modality of treatment (3-6). All of these series statement on data obtained prior to common use of EGFR inhibitors or other targeted therapies. Together these studies suggest that lung malignancy in by no means smokers has peak incidence at a more youthful age than in smokers is usually more likely to arise in women and is more likely to be of adenocarcinoma histology. Furthermore these studies demonstrate a survival advantage for by no means smokers compared to former and current smokers. These data are summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Results of studies on survival CEP-28122 from lung malignancy among by no means smokers Age of onset Two studies from Singapore considering lung malignancy across histologic types suggest that malignancy in by no means smokers occurs at a more youthful age of onset (3 5 (p < 0.001). These data are further supported by an epidemiologic study in a Caucasian populace (7). Etzel et al. statement a higher proportion of by no means smokers (23.9%) among 230 cases of early onset lung malignancy (≤ 50 years of age) than among 426 cases diagnosed at ≥ 70 years of age (17.6%) (p < 0.001). However a fourth study limited only to patients with adenocarcinoma (4) reports the opposite obtaining: median age of onset 63.5 years for never smokers vs. 59.4 years for smokers (p = 0.0005). Gender Data from both Asia and the U.S. consistently statement a higher proportion of women among by no means smokers with lung malignancy relative to smokers with lung malignancy. The study by Toh et al. found among a predominantly ethnic Chinese populace in Singapore that over 68% of the by no means smokers with lung malignancy were women compared with CEP-28122 12% of current- and 13% of former smokers (p < 0.001) (5). Nordquist et al. reported that women comprised 78% of the by no means smoker cohort compared with 54% of the smokers in their series limited to patients with adenocarcinoma (p < 0.0001) (4). Histology The Singapore series of Toh et al. was the only analysis that specifically focused on the distribution of histologic types among lung cancers arising in by no means current and former smokers (8). In this series adenocarcinomas comprised 69.9% of lung cancers in never smokers versus 39.9% in current and 47.3% in former smokers (p < 0.001). Conversely squamous cell carcinoma comprised 5.9% of lung cancer in never CEP-28122 smokers versus 35.7% in current and 28.0% in former smokers. End result Four of the retrospective series include multivariate CEP-28122 analysis evaluating end result in by no means smokers vs. ever-smokers with lung malignancy.