Background and Purpose Ischaemia compromises mitochondrial respiration. was explored and protective potential decided using ischaemia/reperfusion assays. We also investigated a potential mechanism of action through its conversation with inhibitor protein of F1 subunit (IF1) the endogenous inhibitor of the F1Fo-ATPase. Important Results BTB inhibited F1Fo-ATPase activity with no effect on ΔΨm or O2 consumption. ATP consumption was decreased following inhibition of respiration and ischaemic cell death was reduced. BTB efficiency was increased by IF1 overexpression and reduced by silencing the protein. In addition BTB rescued defective haemoglobin synthesis in zebrafish (gene is usually lost. Conclusions and Implications BTB may represent a valuable tool to selectively inhibit mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPase activity without compromising ATP synthesis and to limit ischaemia-induced injury caused by reversal of the mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPsynthase. Introduction In eukaryotic cells ATP is mainly produced through oxidative phosphorylation which is dependent on the activity of the mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPsynthase. When the oxygen supply is compromised for example during ischaemia the F1Fo-ATPsynthase runs in reverse acting as an ATPase hydrolysing ATP and maintaining the proton motive force and thus the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) at the expense of the cellular materials of ATP (Rouslin and carrier zebrafish (Shah heterozygous cross at 1 day post fertilization (dpf). This BTB concentration was chosen as it did not induce any P276-00 toxicity on the animal as was reported with greater concentrations. At 3 dpf larvae were examined under a Nikon SMZ1500 microscope (Nikon Kingston upon Thames UK) and scored as having reddish or clear blood. The experiment was repeated four occasions. Images were taken using a Digital Sight DS-2 Mv video camera (Nikon) and associated Digital Sight imaging software (Nikon). Measuring ΔΨm and haemoglobin in zebrafish larvae WT and embryos P276-00 were separated at 3 dpf and either treated with a vehicle (DMSO) or 1 μM BTB diluted in PBS for 1.5 h for TMRM and 3 h for o-dianisidine at 28°C. For ΔΨm larvae were simultaneously exposed to the cell-permeant cationic reddish fluorescent dye TMRM (300 nM) that is sequestered by polarized mitochondria. After incubation embryos were washed twice in PBS before mounting in 2% low melting point agarose gel in PBS onto a glass-bottomed culture dish. Z-stack images were taken using a 40X objective with a Leica SP5 confocal microscope. Microscope parameters including gain offset z-stack slice number and laser power were kept constant between experiments. The olfactory bulb of each embryo was selected for imaging as this region exhibited consistent TMRM loading permitting comparison between conditions. Ten mitochondrial regions of interest were demarcated in the olfactory bulb per embryo and the imply maximum fluorescence intensity was calculated from this. For o-dianisidine staining after BTB treatment larvae were washed in PBS then stained for 15 min in the dark in o-dianisidine (0.6 mg·mL?1) (Paffett-Lugassy and Zon 2005 0.01 M sodium acetate (pH 4.5) 0.65% H2O2 and 40% (v/v) ethanol. The stained larvae were washed once in PBS prior to fixing in 4% PFA overnight at 4°C. After fixation larvae were washed in PBS again before placing in 70% glycerol/PBS answer where they were equilibrated for at P276-00 least 1 h before imaging on a Nikon SMZ1500 microscope using a Digital Sight DS-2 Mv video camera and associated Digital Sight imaging software. Rabbit polyclonal to HORMAD2. Measurement of mitochondrial matrix pH Mitochondrial matrix pH was assessed using the cell-permeant pH indication probe 5-(and-6)-carboxy SNARF?-1 AM acetate (Molecular Probes? Invitrogen) as reported previously in Shah pH calibration P276-00 of carboxy SNARF-1 AM acetate was performed using control DMSO-treated cells; cells were exposed to high-K+ buffer supplemented with 13 mM nigericin 1 μM FCCP and 20 μg·mL?1 oligomycin to achieve equilibration of the external and internal pH and of cytosolic and mitochondrial matrix pH through permeabilization of plasma membrane and mitochondrial membrane in conjunction with suppression of the F1Fo-ATPsynthase activity. The pH of the.