Cancer is a major health problem and cause of death worldwide

Cancer is a major health problem and cause of death worldwide that accounted for 7. while others are connected only with breast cancer. Genetic risk factors and smoking are the factors which contribute 188480-51-5 IC50 to carcinogenesis in general. Some evidence exists indicating that vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms are associated with both breast and renal cancer; therefore, we put forward the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the VDR Rabbit polyclonal to Caspase 3 gene may influence both the 188480-51-5 IC50 occurrence risks of these cancers and their prognosis. However, the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and these two specific cancers remains a controversial hypothesis, and consequently needs further confirmation via clinical research together with genetic investigations. Here, we aimed to assess the correlation between the different alleles of VDR gene polymorphisms and renal cell cancer and breast cancer risks separately through a systematic review of the present literature. In contrast, this analysis has revealed that some VDR gene polymorphisms, such as: Bsm1, poly(A), Taq1, Apa1, are to some extent associated with breast cancer risk. Other polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with renal cell cancer. Namely, they were Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1 and Apa1, which encode proteins participating mainly in proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. However, data concerning renal cancer are not sufficient to firmly establish the VDR gene polymorphism association. (54). However, the study revealed that the Cdx2 polymorphism A allele occurs more commonly in African (74%) and Asian (43%) populations than among the Caucasians (19%). The data obtained from their research has shown that the f allele for the Fok1 polymorphism occurs less frequently among the Africans (24%) than among the Caucasians (34%) and the Asians (51%), while the frequency of the B allele for Bsm1 is much lower in the Asian (7%) population than among the Caucasians (42%) and the Africans (36%) (35). On the other hand, the Apa1 A allele is exhibited at a higher frequency in the Asian population (74%) than among the Caucasians (44%) and Africans (31%). The LD describes the co-occurrence of the alleles of adjacent polymorphisms. In consequence, the presence of one type of polymorphism may serve as indication of the presence of another polymorphism that is linked to it. It is noticeable due to a very slight recombination that has occurred between them during evolution. LD is present in the case of both Taq1 and poly(A), since they occur in similar ratios in different ethnic groups, with a lower percentage of the Taq1 T allele among Asians (8%) compared to Caucasians (43%) and Africans (31%); similar results have been observed for the poly(A) S allele, which is less frequent among the Asians (12%) than among the Caucasians (41%) and the Africans (29%) (52). In contrast to the Bsm-Apa-Taq haplotypes, haplotype 3 (bAT) is common among the African population (59%), while haplotype 1 (baT) and haplotype 2 (BAt) are mostly observed in Asian (75%) and Caucasian populations (39%) respectively (35). 7.?Vitamin D and breast cancer Currently, and in animal models (57C59). On the other hand, epidemiological data also show that vitamin D supplementation in invasive breast cancer patients did not reduce breast cancer incidence in one trial conducted on post-menopausal women (60). These contradictory findings could be related to tumor heterogeneity, which suggests that effects of vitamin D may only be exhibited in specific subtypes of breast cancer. Therefore, additional functional experiments with vitamin D supplementation should be conducted on specific breast cancer subtypes and polymorphisms in the VDR gene and other gene variants (Fig. 3). Figure 3. It is known that vitamin D plays a crucial role in reducing the risk of breast cancer development, basically when the prevention of angiogenesis is taken into account. VEGF is a potent angiogenic factor which was shown in several publications to limit … 8.?Vitamin D and renal cancer In the kidney, the major site of vitamin D3 formation, metabolism, activity and 188480-51-5 IC50 calcium homeostasis under physiological conditions is the renal proximal tubule (61). Epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D3, obtained either from dietary intake or as a result of the bodys exposure to ultraviolet light, is inversely correlated with renal cancer risk (62,63). Vitamin D3 serum concentrations have been found to be significantly decreased in patients with renal cancer compared to the control population (28,64). However, the exact role of anti-carcinogenic mechanism of vitamin D3 has not been studied widely nor is it completely understood. Nevertheless, it can be postulated that vitamin D3 impedes carcinogenesis via the VDR, and stimulates cell differentiation by inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and suppressing invasiveness, angiogenesis and.