Elevated heart rate has been proposed as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but their interrelationships are not well understood. value. In the adjusted model, the heritability of heart rate was estimated as 0.32 (< .0001) and a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.03 was observed in 77 cM region at chromosome 18. The second largest LOD score of 1 1.52 was seen on chromosome 5 at 216 cM. Genes located on the specified locations in chromosomes 5 and 18 may be involved in the regulation of heart rate. = 2+ 2+ I is specific QTL effects of the genetic markers, 2is residual genetic effect, and < 0.10. Because variance composition method is sensitive to outliers, multivariate residual kurtosis in each analysis retained less than 0.8 thereby avoiding type 1 error. Results Demographic and pedigree characteristics of the data set and the covariates are presented in Table 1. The data set of examined individuals included a large number of relative pair types as we have recruited extended families. The data set included information on 2,546 pairs of first-degree relatives (1,812 parent-offspring pairs and 734 full-sib pairs), and 2,485 pairs of their second-degree relatives (395 half-sibling pairs, 1,202 grandparent-grandchild pairs). The other 888 and 598 pairs were avuncular and first-cousins, respectively. Current alcohol use and smoking was reported by 13.4% and 19.1%, of the subjects, respectively. Mean age of the subjects was 30.6 yrs. Mean resting heart rate was 78.1 and the mean 111025-46-8 supplier number of family members was 15.7. The mean BMI was 23.4 and the mean brachial systolic, diastolic, and arterial blood pressure was 114.6, 67.3, and 83.1, respectively. Table 111025-46-8 supplier 2 shows the relationships between baseline characteristics and heart rate. Age, brachial diastolic pressure, and BMI were significantly associated with mean heart rate. The adjusted heritability model includes age, gender, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption. In the adjusted model, the heritability of heart rate was estimated to be 0.32 (< .0001). In Table 3 are presented LOD scores greater than 1.0, nearest markers, chromosomal locations and candidate genes. In the adjusted model a maximum LOD score of 2.03 was seen on chromosome 18 at 77 cM. The second largest LOD score of 1 1.52 was seen on chromosome 5 at 216 111025-46-8 supplier cM. Figure 1 shows the chromosomal regions linked to heart rate genome-wide linkage analysis. As shown in Figure 2, there is suggestive evidence of linkage (LOD score = 2.03) of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for heart rate on chromosome 18 at 77 cM. Figure 1 Genome-wide linkage analysis of chromosomal regions linked to heart rate. Figure 2 Evidence of linkage (LOD score = 2.03) of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for heart rate on chromosomes 18 at 77 cM. Table 1 Demographic and pedigree characteristics of the dataset. Table 2 Relationships between baseline characteristic data and heart rate. Table 3 LOD scores, chromosomal locations, and nearest marker data for all LOD scores > 1.00a. Discussion It has long been known that heart rate is under the control of the parasympatic and sympathetic nervous system, and that heightened sympathetic tone increases the heart rate (Bonaa and Arnesen, 1992; Palatini and Julius, 1997; Rahn et al., 1999; Fujiura et al., 2001). In more recent studies, they pointed out that genetic components may play an essential role in the regulation of heart rate variability. The Framingham heart study (Singh et al., 1999) also demonstrated that genetic factors are involved in heart rate variability. The degree of heritability of heart rate was 0.32 in GENDISCAN study. This value is somewhat higher than the figure (0.21) reported for Framingham Heart Study participants (Singh et al., 1999), but is lower than the figure (0.41) reported for participants of Netherlands Twin Register (Kupper et al., 2004). All the three studies provide evidence for a strong genetic component in heart rate variability. We showed a peak with a maximum LOD of 2.03 on chromosome 18 at 77 cM. As described by Duchesne et al. (2001), (solute carrier family 14 urea transporter) gene which lies near this loci, encodes UT-A protein expressed in the heart. The expression of this protein in failing left ventricle is 1.4-4.3 fold to that in normal nonfailing ventricle. Further, (endothelial lipase precursor) gene also lies on chromosome 18 at 77cM. This gene encodes the protein that process Rabbit Polyclonal to GIMAP2 substantial phospholipase activity and plays an important role in lipid metabolism. More recently, Shimizu et al. (2007) reported that the significant association between 584C/T SNP of gene and an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) independent of HDL-C levels in a Japanese population. It is also of interest that chromosome 5 yielded the second largest linkage peak which corresponds to its 216 cM region. An analysis of the database indicated that the chromosomal region 216 cM on chromosome.