Background Acupuncture has been popular for preventing migraine attacks and relieving

Background Acupuncture has been popular for preventing migraine attacks and relieving pain during a migraine, although there is limited knowledge within the physiological mechanism behind this method. fMRI scan at the end of baseline and at the end of treatment. The neuroimaging data indicated that long-term active acupoint therapy elicited a more extensive and impressive cerebral response compared with acupuncture at inactive acupoints. Most of the areas were involved in the pain matrix, lateral pain system, medial pain system, default mode network, and cognitive components of pain processing. Correlation analysis showed the decrease in the visual analogue level (VAS) was significantly related to the improved average Regional homogeneity (ReHo) ideals in the anterior cingulate cortex in the two groups. Moreover, the decrease in the VAS was associated with improved average ReHo ideals in the buy SSR240612 insula which could become recognized in the active acupoint group. Conclusions Long-term active acupoint therapy and inactive acupoint therapy have different brain activities. We postulate that acupuncture in the active acupoint might have the potential effect of regulating some disease-affected important areas and the pain circuitry for migraine, and promote creating psychophysical pain homeostasis. Trial Sign up Chinese Medical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003635 Intro Migraine is definitely a common neurological disorder that typically manifests as repeated episodes of moderate or severe unilateral, pulsating headache aggravated by routine physical activity and is definitely associated with nausea and/or phonophobia and photophobia [1]. Migraine has captivated more and more attention worldwide like a public health issue because of its high prevalence, frequent attack history, significant medical burden, and a serious reduction in quality of life (QOL) and productivity [2], [3]. Although the exact mechanism of migraine is still unclear, there is plenty of neuroimaging evidence showing that migraine is definitely a central nervous system disorder [4]C[6]. Our study group including migraine without aura individuals showed that irregular structure and function was probably associated with an impaired pain processing and modulatory process, such as in the anterior buy SSR240612 cingulate buy SSR240612 cortex (ACC), insula, basal ganglia, thalamus, supplementary engine area (SMA), prefrontal cortex, etc. [7]C[9]. Acupuncture has a long history in China as one of TM4SF2 the treatment modalities of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and is progressively being used in the Western buy SSR240612 like a complementary and alternate treatment to prevent migraine attacks and to reduce pain during a migraine. The latest Cochrane meta-analysis suggests that acupuncture like a migraine prophylaxis is definitely safe and at least as effective, if not more effective, than prophylactic drug treatment [10]. During the past decade, a considerable number of high quality medical studies possess indicated that acupuncture is able to alleviate headache degree and/or improve the QOL [11]C[13]. However, despite the recognition of acupuncture in migraine therapy, there persists limited knowledge within the physiological mechanisms behind this buy SSR240612 method, and some controversy within the superiority of verum acupuncture over sham control. Some studies suggested that the obvious influence of acupuncture on pain symptoms was either insignificant or a placebo effect [12], [14]. With the development of neuroimaging techniques, this has offered a brand new look at to explore the central mechanisms of acupuncture, and has been a global tendency in acupuncture study. We recognized cerebral glucose metabolism after short periods of acupuncture activation in migraineurs through positron emission tomography (PET) with computed tomography exam, and found that transientapp:addword:transient acupuncture activation induced different levels of cerebral glucose metabolism in some pain-related brain areas [15]. In fact, one session of acupuncture activation did not fully model the medical scenario, and was hardly plenty of to achieve the expected effect in medical practice. Consequently, the cumulative restorative effect of long-term acupuncture would help to reveal the underlying mechanisms of acupuncture treatment in more depth. In the current study, we performed a ReHo approach [16] to compare the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the brains of migraine individuals during the resting-state. ReHo is based on a data-driven approach and thus requires no previous.