Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by tubular cell death and

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by tubular cell death and interstitial inflammation. Bcl3 by siRNA resulted in the magnification of TWEAK-induced NF-B transcriptional activity, chemokine upregulation and Klotho downregulation, and in the sensitization to cell death induced by TWEAK/TNF/interferon-. In contrast, Bcl3 overexpression decreased NF-B transcriptional activity, inflammatory response and cell death while dampening the decrease in Klotho expression. In conclusion, Bcl3 expressed in response to TWEAK stimulation decreases TWEAK-induced inflammatory and lethal responses. Therefore, therapeutic upregulation of Bcl3 activity should be explored in kidney disease because it has advantages over chemical inhibitors of NF-B that are known to prevent inflammatory responses but can also sensitize the cells to apoptosis. Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by an acute rise in serum creatinine levels or a decrease in urine output and is associated with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to an increase in short-term and long-term mortality.1 There is no satisfactory treatment for this condition.2 Recent consensus in definitions allows for the recognition of AKI at earlier stages and Narciclasine supplier thus even the knowledge of incipient AKI has been advanced lately.3, 4 This will hopefully facilitate clinical research examining early management strategies of AKI. Correct understanding of the pathophysiology of AKI will allow for the identification of specific therapeutic agents and earlier biomarkers for clinical practice. The tumor necrosis Narciclasine supplier factor (TNF) superfamily cytokine TWEAK is a key promoter of acute and chronic kidney injury.5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Neutralizing anti-TWEAK antibodies have gone to clinical trials in lupus nephritis.10 The bulk of the renal cell mass is composed of tubular cells, and it is the tubular cell death or injury that is the main morphological feature of AKI.11 In tubular cells, TWEAK induces inflammatory responses, downregulates Klotho and, in presence of additional inflammatory cytokines, promotes cell death.12, 13, 14 These actions are thought to contribute to kidney injury and are related to the activation of the transcription factor NF-B.13 TWEAK promotes both the early canonical NF-B pathway activation characterized by nuclear translocation of RelA and the prolonged activation of the non-canonical pathway characterized by increased DNA-binding activity of the p52/RelB NF-B complex.9, 15 Parthenolide is an inhibitor of the canonical pathway of NF-B activation. TWEAK induces the parthenolide-sensitive expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 chemokines13 and downregulation of Klotho expression.8 There is histological evidence of NF-B activation in human diabetic nephropathy, glomerular disease and AKI.15 NF-B was found to be activated in glomerular and tubular cells and correlated with the parameters associated with severe renal diseases, such as proteinuria or inflammation.16, 17, 18, 19, 20 In experimental renal disease, NF-B is activated in podocytes and mesangial cells during glomerular injury and in tubular cells during the course of proteinuria. It is also activated in primary tubulointerstitial diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, urinary tract obstruction and septic or toxic AKI.9, 13, Spry2 15, 21, 22, 23 NF-B activation promotes inflammation, regulates fibrosis and may protect from cytokine-induced cell death.15 However, there is little information on the contribution of individual NF-B-regulatory proteins in these Narciclasine supplier actions. This knowledge is required to design better therapeutic approaches. Hence, there has not yet been any approach specifically targeting NF-B in the clinic for kidney disease. We recently showed that the NF-B-regulatory protein NFBiz was decreased during AKI, despite having higher than normal mRNA levels.24 Evidence from functional assessment have shown that in kidney cells, NFBiz downregulation increased chemokine production, dampened TWEAK-induced Klotho downregulation and rendered the cells more resistant to inflammation-induced apoptosis. This suggests that NFBiz may have anti-inflammatory properties in tubular epithelium. However, it can also result in cell death and downregulation of the anti-aging and tissue-protective protein Klotho. Overall, the properties Narciclasine supplier of NFBiz are thus not well suited for therapeutic intervention, given its opposing effects on inflammation and cell death. Here we have explored the function of B-cell.