Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a brain specific protein tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In all cases there was a decrease in potency by 2-3 orders of magnitude when the GSH reducing agent was present in the assay. Because the inhibition of STEP by TC-2153 has been shown to be irreversible in the absence of GSH 4 we next determined the second order rate of inactivation (kinact/Ki) for all of the inhibitors under these conditions using the progress-curve method (Table 2).14 15 These results demonstrate that the methyl (18) and unsubstituted (19) derivatives are about three times less potent than trifluoromethyl substituted TC-2153. Additionally alkylated derivatives 25 and 26 were also less potent consistent with the IC50 data (Table 1). The Ki values of 23 and 24 indicated that acylation modestly attenuates binding. However these inhibitors still showed larger kinact/Ki values than TC-2153 because of their much higher kinact values relative to the non-acylated parent structure. Table 2 Second order rates of inactivation of TC-2153 analogs13 In conclusion we have prepared and characterized the STEP inhibitory activities of a series of analogs of TC-2153 which has shown promising results in mouse models for AD.4 This study establishes that the electron deficient trifluoromethyl group contributes to potency while the amino group does not though it is important for aqueous solubility. Other modifications upon the structure are also tolerated. Most importantly acylation of the aniline is accommodated and could provide a site for introducing reporter groups or functionality for pull down and proteomic applications. Finally the optimized route for the synthesis of Rabbit Polyclonal to DIRA1. these types of analogs enables their rapid preparation through acylation of a common intermediate. Supplementary Material Click here to view.(481K pdf) Acknowledgements Support has been provided by the National Institutes of Health (R01-GM054051). Footnotes Publisher’s Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this Picoplatin early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting typesetting and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. Supplementary Material Experimental details including synthetic procedures and analytical characterization of compounds and enzyme assay Picoplatin curves associated with this article can be found in the online version at [placeholder]. Picoplatin References and notes 1 For a general overview of synaptic plasticity in neuropsychiatric disorders see the following: Issac JT. J. Physiol. 2009;587:727. [PubMed] Palop JJ Chin J Mucke L. Nature. 2006;443:768. [PubMed] 2 Goebel-Goody SM Baum M Paspalas CD Fernandez SM Carty NC Kurup P Lombroso PJ. Pharmacol. Rev. 2012;64:65. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 3 (a) Zhang YF Kurup P Xu J Carty N Fernandez S Nygaard HB Pittenger C Greengard P Strittmatter S Nairn AC Lombroso PJ. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2010;107:19014. [PMC free article] [PubMed](b) Zhang YF Kurup P Xu J Anderson G Greengard P Nairn AC Lombroso PJ. J. Neurochem. 2011;119:664. [PubMed] 4 Xu J Chatterjee M Baguley TD Brouillette J Kurup P Ghosh D Kanyo J Zhang Y Seyb K Ononenyi C Foscue E Anderson GM Gresack J Cuny GD Glicksman MA Greengard P Lam TT Tautz L Nairn AC Ellman JA Lombroso PJ. PLoS Biology. 2014;12:e1001923. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 5 For a prior publication on a different class of STEP inhibitors see: Baguley TD Xu H-C Chatterjee M Nairn AC Lombroso PJ Ellman JA. J. Med. Chem. 2013;56:7636. [PubMed] 6 For a general Picoplatin review on phosphatase inhibitors see: Vintonyak VV Waldmann H Rauh D. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2011;19:2145. [PubMed] 7 General reviews on cysteine redox and its regulation of PTPs: Parsons ZD Gates KS. Method. Enzymol. 2013;528:129. [PubMed] Conte ML Carroll KS. J. Biol. Chem. 2013;288:26480. [PubMed] 8 Specific examples: Dickinson BC Chang CJ. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2011;7:504. [PubMed] Rhee SG. Science. 2006;312:1882. [PubMed] Tonks NK. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2006;7:833..