The design synthesis and biological evaluations of fourteen 4-substituted 2 6 3 of 10 with the appropriate iodoalkane in the presence of NaH (Scheme 2). 1 1 NMR (DMSO-= 8.4 Hz) 7.87 (d 2 H = 8.4 Hz) 9.74 (s 1 H 0.16 (EtOAc/Hexane 1 1 NMR (CDCl3) δ 2.20 (s 3 H) 2.61 (s 3 H) 5.24 (s 1 H) 6.49 (t 1 H) 7.11 (m 4 H 1 H 0.28 (EtOAc/Hexane 1 1 NMR (DMSO-= 8.8 Hz C6H4) 7.61 (d 2 H = 8.8 Hz C6H4) 9.34 (s 1 H 4 exch); HRMS C15H16N3O2. 0.36 (Hexane/EtOAc 3:1); 1H NMR (DMSO-= 9.2 Hz C6H4) 7.25 (d 2 H = 9.2 Hz C6H4); HRMS C16H18N3O2; Anal. C16H17N3O2. General procedure for the synthesis of 12-15 To a stirred suspension of 10 (1 mmol) in 2 ml DMF was added NaH (1.1 mmol) in portionsat 0 °C. The resulted mixture was stirred at ambient temperature until there was no further gas release. To the above mixture was added the appropriate alkyl iodide (1 mmol) at ambient temperature. The resulted mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 4 h and then poured into 10 ml H2O to afford a white precipitate which was collected through filtration and purified by column chromatography to afford the desired compounds 12-15. = 0.30 (Hexane/EtOAc 3:1); 1H Tipifarnib (Zarnestra) NMR (DMSO-= 0.30 (Hexane/EtOAc 3:1); 1H NMR (DMSO-= 0.30 (Hexane/EtOAc 3:1); 1H NMR (DMSO-= 0.30 (Hexane/EtOAc 3:1); 1H NMR (DMSO-0.01 (CH3Cl/MeOH 6:1); 1H NMR (DMSO-= 8.0 Hz 2 CH) 7.26 (d 2 H = 8.0 Hz 2 CH); Anal. C16H18ClN3O2·0.3H2O. Molecular modeling The X-ray crystal structures of tubulin co-crystallized with = 8-24) using non-linear regression dose-response relation analysis. Chorioallantoic membrane assay of angiogenesis The CAM assay is a standard Tipifarnib (Zarnestra) assay for testing antiangiogenic agents. The CAM assay used in these studies was modified from a procedure by Sheu69 and Brooks70 and as published previously.71 Briefly fertile leghorn chicken eggs (CBT Farms Chestertown MD) were allowed to grow until 10 days of incubation. The proangiogenic factors human VEGF-165 and bFGF (100 ng each) were then added Tipifarnib (Zarnestra) at saturation to a 6 mm microbial testing disk (BBL Cockeysville MD) and placed onto the CAM by breaking a small hole in the superior surface of the egg. Antiangiogenic compounds were Tipifarnib (Zarnestra) added 8 hr after the VEGF/bFGF at saturation to the same microbial testing disk and embryos allowed to incubate for an additional 40 h. After 48 h the CAMs were perfused with 2% paraformaldehyde/3% glutaraldehyde containing DGKD 0.025% Triton X-100 for 20 sec excised around the area of treatment fixed again in 2% paraformaldehyde/3% glutaraldehyde for 30 min placed on Petri dishes and a digitized image was taken using a dissecting microscope (Wild M400; Bannockburn IL) at 7.5X and SPOT enhanced digital imaging system (Diagnostic Instruments Sterling Heights MI). A grid Tipifarnib (Zarnestra) was then added to the digital CAM images and the average number of vessels within 5-7 grids counted as a measure of vascularity. Sunitinib and semaxanib were used as a positive controls for antiangiogenic activity. Data were graphed as a percent of CAMs receiving bFGF/VEGF only and IC50 values calculated from two to three separate experiments (= 5-11) using non-linear regression dose-response relation analysis. Indirect Immunofluorescence A-10 cells were used to evaluate the effects of the compounds on cellular microtubules using indirect immunofluorescence. Cells were treated for 18 h with compounds and microtubules visualized with an antibody towards β-tubulin (Sigma-Aldrich St. Louis MO) Ec50 values were calculated as previously described and represent an average of a minimum of three independent experiments.72 Sulforhodamine B (SRB) Assay The antiproliferative activity and evaluation of activity in cellular resistance models of all compounds was evaluated using the SRB assay as previously described.64 The IC50’s represent an average of 3 independent experiments using triplicates plus or minus the standard deviation. Cell Cycle Analysis HeLa cells were plated in 60 mm dishes and allowed to adhere for 24 h. Drug was then added and cells harvested 24 h later. 50 nM CA-4 was used as a positive control. Once cells were harvested they were stained with Krishan’s reagent and analyzed for DNA content using a BD LSRII.